第57回 都市圏研究部会

共 催:経済地理学会関西支部,日本都市地理学研究グループ

日 時: 2015年12月5日(土) 13:00~17:00

会 場:新大阪丸ビル新館609号室
東淀川区東中島1-18-27、新大阪駅から徒歩2分 Tel: 06-6321-1516





Value Capture Trajectories and Strategic Coupling of Regions with Global Production Networks・・・・・Henry Wai-chung Yeung(シンガポール国立大学地理学科)

座長: 日野正輝(東北大学)、宮町良広(大分大学)


■Promoting regional development in a world of global production networks
Henry Wai-chung Yeung(National University of Singapore)   
In its World Investment Report 2013, UNCTAD estimated that some 80 percent of international trade was now organized through global production networks (GPNs) coordinated by lead firms investing in cross-border productive assets and trading inputs and outputs with partners, suppliers, and customers worldwide. If these production networks are indeed the organizational backbone and central nervous system of today’s global economy, how does a regional economy develop and thrive by taking advantage of access to markets, technologies, knowledge, and capital embedded in these chains and networks?
I believe regional growth and development can be sustained through a process of strategic coupling that brings together key actors (e.g. firms) and institutions (e.g. state authorities) in regional economies and global lead firms in those production networks. This process of mutual complementarity can work to the benefits of both regional economies and GPNs. The former gain employment, production knowhow, and market access. The latter become more competitive through efficiency gains and technological innovation.
In East Asian regions, my research has identified three forms of such strategic coupling.
1. International partnership: In the Taipei-Hsinchu region, this articulation has taken the form of domestic Taiwanese firms serving as strategic partners of lead firms in the global information and communications technology (ICT) industry. In Singapore, global lead firms have made a direct presence through inward investment. This international partnership with global lead firms, either through transactional relationships or direct presence, brings tremendous growth dynamics and development potential to global industries in both cases: the Taipei-Hsinchu region (e.g. electronics and ICT) and Singapore (electronics, chemicals, finance, and transport and logistics).
2. Indigenous innovation: The presence of the developmental state creates the possibility of indigenous innovation through sustained national efforts in developing new products and process technologies embodied in such organizational forms as national firms (e.g. Samsung and TSMC) and strategic industries (e.g. semiconductors). These are large lead firms emerging from decades of sustained industrial policies that work in tandem with the return of technological and business elites from advanced industrialized economies (e.g. the US). Indeed, some of these national firms have become lead firms in their own global production networks, underscoring the developmental possibility of increased autonomy and capabilities in East Asian regions such as Seoul Metropolitan Area (South Korea), Taipei-Hsinchu (Taiwan), and Singapore.
3. Production platforms: Since the early 1980s, developing regions such as China’s coastal regions, Malaysia’s Penang, and Thailand’s Greater Bangkok region have been strategically coupled with the huge demand for competitive production platforms by lead firms in GPNs. As production platforms, these regions provide very competitive cost structures, abundant labour supply, stable policy environment, fiscal and other financial incentives, and so on.
In short, strategic coupling is a selective process that incorporates only certain regional and GPN actors. It is unrealistic for regional policy makers and practitioners to expect such global-regional coupling process to be always inclusive; it is even more dangerous for them to rely exclusively on such strategic coupling as the only pathway to regional upgrading and positive development outcomes. There is always a critical role for regional institutions and groups of actors to engage in joint decision and collective action to mitigate the negative consequences of such GPN coupling and to consider a more balanced and equitable form of regional development.

第2に,日系企業のアジア進出における現地企業との関係と,現地への貢献に関する質問がなされた。日系企業は主として富裕層を対象にしているのではとの指摘がなされた。鈴木氏は,2000年以降日系企業による現地企業への調達への依存度が高まったことを指摘した。その背景には,進出先の国からの強い要望があり,それは自動車メーカーに対して強く,電器機産業ではそれほどでもなかった。また,日系企業は現地調達の際に,地域・国を使い分けている。アジアのレンタル工場では,1次下請けのティア1だけではなく,ティア2,ティア3と呼ばれる2次、3次下請けも進出している。最後に,BOP(Bottomo/Base of Pyamid)ビジネスに携わる日系企業は少ないが,インドネシアではBOPビジネスに近いことを行っている日系企業があることを指摘した。

2015.09.28  Comment:3