大阪市北区梅田1-2-2-600 大阪駅前第2ビル6階

趣旨:物流・交通旅客流動と地域の結びつきについて近年でも精力的に論文を発表され,Journal of Transport Geography の Editor も務めるケヴィン・オコナー氏(メルボルン大学名誉教授)をお迎えし,ご講演いただきます。

テーマ:Air Transport and Urban Development in the Asia Pacific region

講演者:Kevin O’Connor(Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne)

ABSTRACT: A well-developed array of research has shown that airports and air transport are fundamental influences upon current trends in urban development. Most analysis of the connections between these two influences have emphasised global city functions and rank as a key determinants on the outcomes for individual cities. This presentation explores the idea that the linkages within an intra-Asian context maybe a more important influence on change in the fortunes of Asian cities. It begins by identifying the scale and geography of intra-Asian linkages, as explored in previous research and as seen in recent trends in air transport. It then moves on to develop a research framework to analyse three elements of intra-Asian mobility: business, tourism and migration. It shows the emerging Asian geographies in these activities and how airlines (in particular low cost carriers) are reacting to these geographies. The presentation will conclude with an outline of possible research methodologies that could be used to describe and account for the part that intra-Asian linkages will play in economic outcomes in cities across the region.

Emeritus Professor Kevin O’Connor has a Master of Commerce from the University of Melbourne and a PhD from McMaster University Canada. He spent 25 years in the Department of Geography at Monash University before being appointed Professor of Urban Planning in the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning at the University of Melbourne in July 2003. He was appointed Emeritus Professor following retirement in 2008.

His research, funded by international and national research agencies, and published in major international journals, has explored the links between the economic system (particularly services) and the growth and internal structure of cities. A long term interest has been the influence of airline and airport activity on the economic role of metropolitan areas, with a recent focus on logistics services. He has explored those interests in global, Asia-Pacific and Australian contexts.

His reputation in international research on transportation was reflected in the invitation to give the Fleming Memorial Lecture in Transportation Geography at a meeting of the American Association of Geographers. He is the Associate Editor, Asia-Pacific, for the Journal of Transport Geography, and a member of the International Advisory Committee of the annual International Conference held by the Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies. He has reviewed proposals for research bodies in the US, Canada, the EU, Qatar and Australia.

An Australian focus of his research was presented in a book outlining links between economic activity and cities in Australia entitled The New Economic Geography of Australia: A Society Dividing (Oxford University Press) published in 2001. This book received an award for Planning Scholarship from the Australian Planning Institute in 2002.


ゲスト司会:堤 純(筑波大学),松本秀暢(神戸大学)

E-mail: yamagami(at)center.wakayama-u.ac.jp

■Air Transport and City Development: The Asia Pacific Experience
Kevin O’Connor (University of Melbourne)
The transport activities at an airport has long been acknowledged as a major influence upon the vitality of its surrounding city and regional economy. That perspective has played a part in the analysis of cities in the Asia Pacific region, with a particular focus upon the links to other global cities. The current presentation argues that to more accurately focus that analysis, attention needs to be focused upon links between cities within the Asia Pacific region itself. That idea is justified by the fact that 14 of the 20 busiest international inter-city air routes (and the 7 busiest) are between cities within the Asia-Pacific region.
Previous research has shown the importance of intra-Asian connections, especially in trade and foreign direct investment flows. That research exposed the fundamental links between the development of countries such as Japan and Korea on those in the south of the region, captured in what was called the “flying geese model”. That idea was enriched through case studies of firms locating branches across the region, and through fine scale analysis of trade and investment flows, especially once China became a major component of the region’s production system. Over the period of that research the regions’ air traffic grew steadily and there was some change in the relative importance of the airports of some cities.
The current analysis confirms the strength of the intra-Asian component of trade and investment flows identified in the earlier research, and then widens the scope to explore tourism and migration, which are both expected to have an important effect upon air transport activity. In these sectors intra-Asian connections are dominant. For example, though 50% of the trade of Asian nations is within the region, 70% of the tourism and migration movement is between Asian countries themselves.
Preliminary analysis of the nations involved in these linkages shows they correspond to the known concentrations of air travel. So for example connections between Japan, China and Korea are very prominent in air traffic data and tourism. The same correspondence can be detected in the air traffic links between South East Asian nations, which are also targets for FDI projects, tourism movement and also generate high levels of labour movements between countries. To some extent the current air traffic flows reflect changes in the organisation of the airline industry itself, especially the rise in the importance of Low Cost Carriers on a number of routes and in a number of countries.
Hence the role of an airport (or airports) in an Asian city is likely to be influenced in particular by its role in intra-Asian activity. To develop understanding in this area we have a research challenge to first, refine our description of the intra-Asian links in trade, tourism and migration and second, develop analytical tools to show precisely how these inter-city links influence airport activity in the region’s cities. One concern here is that much of the data on intra-Asian flows is recorded for nations, while the analysis needs to connect to air traffic data recorded for cities. This step may call for some innovative data collection approaches to produce data on city activity.
Addressing this challenge has the potential to contribute understanding not only to the geography and organisation of the region but also provide a firm foundation for public policy discussions on airport development and air transport management in what is now the world’s major air transport market.

 アジア太平洋地域での航空交通の量的な拡大を具体的に取り上げた報告であり,報告者と参加者との間で約1時間にわたり熱心な質疑応答が行われた。質疑の内容は,1)航空ネットワークと都市システムとの関係,2)LCC(Low Cost Carrier)の成長と観光客の増大,3)航空旅客流動を説明するモデルやデータについて,の3点に整理できる。これらは相互に関連することから,ここでは上記3つの内容ごとに概要をまとめることで研究会の記録としたい。
 ところで,国際的な航空ネットワークの研究の推進にあたり,各国にまたがるデータを一国の研究者のみで網羅的に揃えることは容易ではない。こうしたことから,国際的な共同プロジェクトで研究を進めることの大切さを,報告者はJournal of Transport Geographyへの投稿を呼びかけるかたちで最後に指摘した。それは,データ入手や数量的な分析にとどまらず,その結果を各国・地域の事情に照らし合わせて丁寧に読み取り,相互の理解を深めていくことの大切さを呼びかけるものであった。
2018.04.21  Comment:0